The Siege of Jerusalem took place from 7 June 7 to 15 July 1099 during the First Crusade. In 1075 the city of Jerusalem the most holy of holy places for Christians, was captured by Turkish Muslims.
Jesus spent most of his life in Jerusalem and and where the Last Supper, the Crucifixion and the Resurrection took place. Christians called Jerusalem the "City of God".
It is where Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, ascended to heaven. A beautiful dome - called the Dome of the Rock - was built on the rock where Muhammad was said to have sat and prayed and it was so holy that no Muslim was allowed to tread on the rock or touch it when visiting the Dome.
For the Jews it was their homeland. It had been promised to them by Jehovah, who they believed had covenanted with Abraham to give him the land of Israel.
The Crusades were holy wars and were all about the city of Jerusalem. Christian Europe believed that it was a scandal that Jerusalem should be in Muslim hands. They were also scared by the speed with which the Turkish Muslims were advancing into Europe. The wars over Jerusalem lasted nearly 200 years.
The word “crusade” comes from the word Crux, which means “cross” in Latin. Those who volunteered for the crusade were called crusaders, meaning that they took the cross of Jesus upon them.
There were a total of nine crusades!
The first Crusade was to recapture Jerusalem from the Turkish Muslim. The Crusade was successful and Christian kingdoms were set up, but the Turks recovered and took back one of the kingdoms.
The Second Crusade's aim was to recapture the Kingdom but it wasn't successful and the Holy City was again recaptured by the Turks.
The Third Crusade and the Fourth Crusades failed to recapture Jerusalem.
One of the most famous English Kings, Richard I spent only 10 months of his reign in England. Soon after he became King of England in 1189, he joined the Third Crusade.
The First Crusade : 1096 to 1099
The Second Crusade : 1147 to 1149
The Third Crusade : 1189 to 1192
The Fourth Crusade : 1201 to 1204
The Fifth Crusade : 1218 to 1221
The Sixth Crusade : 1228 to 1229
The Seventh Crusade : 1248 to 1254
The Eighth Crusade : 1270