Project BritainProject Britain

British Life and Culture

by Mandy Barrow

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British life and culture - England, Scotland and Wales
Timeline of the Kings and Queens of England

The Tudors Welsh flag
(Find out more about the Tudors)

The Tudors were Welsh. They brought peace to England after 150 years of virtually continuous warfare, encouraged new religious ideas, overseas exploration and colonisation.

Henry 7King Henry VII 1485 - 1509

Henry restored peace after the War of the Roses. He saved money for the Royal Treasury and sent Cabot to Newfoundland.

  • Age 28-52
  • Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
  • Born: January 28, 1457 at Pembroke Castle, Wales Welsh flag
  • Parents: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort
  • Ascended to the throne: 22 August 1485 aged 28 years
  • Crowned: 30 October 1485 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV
  • Children: Three sons and four daughters. Only 4 of whom survived infancy; Arthur, Margaret, Henry and Mary
  • Died: 21 April 1509 at Richmond Palace, Surrey, aged 52 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: his son Henry VIII

1471 - Henry aged 14 fled to Brittany, France, when Lancastrian King Henry VI was murdered by Yorkist King Edward IV making Welsh Henry next in line to the throne.

1485 - Henry gained the throne when he defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The battle ended the War of the Roses, a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

Immediately following his victory at Bosworth he married the Yorkist heiress, Edward IV ‘s daughter, Elizabeth to consolidate the warring families.

Henry VII kept England peaceful and brought riches to the crown and country.

Click here to read more about Henry VII

henry 8King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547

        Henry built a navy and made England stronger and more important in Europe. He quarrelled with the Pope and closed the monastries, making himself Head of the Church of England.

        • Age 17-56
        • Second son of Henry VII
        • Born: 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace image: English Flag
        • Parents: Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
        • Ascended to the throne: 21 April 1509 aged 17 years
        • Crowned: 24 June 1509 at Westminster Abbey
        • Married:
          (1) Catherine of Aragon 1509-1533 Divorced
          (2) Anne Boleyn 1533-1536 Beheaded
          (3) Jane Seymour 1536-1537 Died
          (4) Anne of Cleves 1540 Divorced
          (5) Catherine Howard 1540-1542 Beheaded
          (6) Catherine Parr 1543-1547 Survived
        • Children: Three legitimate who survived infancy; Mary, Elizabeth and Edward, and at least one illegitimate child Henry Fitzroy.
        • Died: 28 January 1547 at Whitehall Palace, London, aged 55 years
        • Buried at: Windsor
        • Succeeded by: his son Edward VI

Henry succeeded to the throne because his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. His first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was Arthur's wife.

The best known fact about Henry VIII is that he had six wives!

Henry argued with the Pope and made himself the head of the new 'Church of England'.

Most school children learn the following rhyme to help them remember the fate of each wife: "Divorced, Beheaded, Died: Divorced, Beheaded, Survived".

Click here to read more about Henry VIII

EdwardKing Edward VI 1547 - 1553

Edward was a boy-king. He founded some Grammar Schools.

  • Age 9-15
  • Born: 12 October 1537 at Hampton Court image: English Flag
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
  • Ascended to the throne: 28 January 1547 aged 9 years
  • Crowned: 19 February 1547 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Never Married
  • Children: None
  • Died: 6 July 1553 at Greenwich Palace
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: his half sister Mary

Edward reigned under the protection of his uncle, the Duke of Somerset.
Edward was never a healthy King and died aged only 15 years.

Click here to read more about Edward VI

After Edward's death there was a dispute over the succession. As Mary was Catholic, LADY JANE GREY was named as the next in line to the throne. She was proclaimed Queen but Mary entered London with her supporters and Jane was taken to the Tower. She reigned for only 9 days. She was executed in 1554, aged 17.

Mary 1Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558

Mary was a devout Roman Catholic. She married Philip, King of Spain. She persecuted the Protestants.

  • Age 37-42
  • Born: 8 February 1516 at Greenwich Palace image: English Flag
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
  • Ascended to the throne: 19 July 1553 aged 37 years
  • Crowned: 1 October 1553 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Philip II of Spain
  • Children: None
  • Died: November 17, 1558 at St James Palace, London, aged 42 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her half sister Elizabeth

Her nickname was Bloody Mary because of the huge numbers of people she murdered to return England from its Protestant regime back to the Catholic faith.

Click here to read more about Mary I

ElizabethQueen Elizabeth I
1558 - 1603

Most of Shakespear's plays were written in her reign.

  • Age 25-69
  • Born: 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace image: English Flag
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
  • Ascended to the throne: 17 November 1558 aged 25 years
  • Crowned: 15 January 1559 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Never Married
  • Children: None
  • Died: 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, Surrey, aged 69 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her 3rd cousin James of Scotland

During her reign great adventurers discovered many new lands. Fought off the Spanish Armada.

Named James VI of Scotland her heir, uniting the two countries Scotland and England.

Click here to read more about Elizabeth I

House of Yorkprevious pagenext pageStuarts

1066 - 1154 The Normans

1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings)

1216 - 1399 Plantagenets

1399 - 1461 The House of Lancaster

1461 - 1485 The House of York

1485 -1603 The Tudors

1603 - 1649 and 1660 - 1714 The Stuarts

1714 -1901 The House of Hanoverians

1901 -1910 and 1910 - Today Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors


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All the materials on these pages are free for homework and classroom use only. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the Mandy Barrow.

© Copyright Mandy Barrow 2013

Mandy is the creator of the Woodlands Resources section of the Woodlands Junior website. 
The two websites and are the new homes for the Woodlands Resources.

Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant. 
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.

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